Charles I only became heir when his brother Henry died in 1612. Seven years of fighting between Charles’ supporters and Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarians claimed the lives of thousands, and ultimately, of the King himself. In this extremity, in July Charles seized silver bullion worth £130,000 held in trust at the mint in the Tower of London, promising its later return at 8% interest to its owners. [167], Charles had made important concessions in England, and temporarily improved his position in Scotland by securing the favour of the Scots on a visit from August to November 1641 during which he conceded to the official establishment of presbyterianism. Oliver Cromwell's son was known as ‘Tumbledown Dick’. Charles also believed that he had the sole right to make laws, so to oppose him was a sin against God. [71] She became pregnant for the first time, and the bond between them grew stronger. Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017. High Court of Justice, convened in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. "[275], He walked under guard from St James's Palace, where he had been confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House. Charles delayed the opening of his first Parliament until after the marriage was consummated, to forestall any opposition. "[293] Although Charles's head was exhibited,[294] the words were not used, possibly because the executioner did not want his voice recognised. [43], Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial anti-Calvinist ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu, who was in disrepute among the Puritans. [249] In Pride's Purge on 6 and 7 December, the members of Parliament out of sympathy with the military were arrested or excluded by Colonel Thomas Pride,[250] while others stayed away voluntarily. [274] The following morning, he called for two shirts to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear:[275][276] "the season is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some observers may imagine proceeds from fear. [223], In 1644, Charles remained in the southern half of England while Rupert rode north to relieve Newark and York, which were under threat from parliamentary and Scottish Covenanter armies. [205] In one stroke Charles destroyed his supporters' efforts to portray him as a defence against innovation and disorder. But they were held so far away that the King's final short speech was lost in the freezing air. Charles I was given just three days to put his affairs in order and say goodbye to his family. [302] Cromwell forcibly disbanded the Rump Parliament in 1653,[303] thereby establishing the Protectorate with himself as Lord Protector. "[281], At about 2:00 p.m.,[282] Charles put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. Puritan reformers thought Charles was too sympathetic to the teachings of Arminianism, which they considered irreligious, and opposed his desire to move the Church of England in a more traditional and sacramental direction. The royal marriage produced nine children, including future Charles II, and Mary Henrietta, who married William II of Orange. [210], In mid-1642, both sides began to arm. This came three hours later. [242], From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties. It was scheduled on Tuesday, 30th January 1649. It was effectively a military coup. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. [52], A poorly conceived and executed naval expedition against Spain under the leadership of Buckingham went badly, and the House of Commons began proceedings for the impeachment of the duke. "[268] He claimed that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch,[256] that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God and by the traditional laws of England, and that the power wielded by those trying him was only that of force of arms. Facts about Charles 1st Execution 4: the schedule for the execution. They were placed back in the tomb in 1888. In the centre of the blackened and sanded floor stood the axe and a lower quartering block of a kind used to dismember traitors. If Charles’ popular and likeable elder brother Henry had not died young of typhoid it is unlikely that England would have been riven by the bloodiest civil war ever known. [325] He thought he was answerable only to God. [315], In the words of John Philipps Kenyon, "Charles Stuart is a man of contradictions and controversy". The Commonwealth of England, as … Both were Henry and Elizabeth. [310] His close associates, including the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Arundel, shared his interest and have been dubbed the Whitehall Group. [145] A cessation of arms, although not a final settlement, was negotiated in the humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed in October 1640. Originally published by Historic Royal Palaces, republished with permission for educational, non-commercial purposes. He inherited his father’s lack of confidence and a slight speech impediment, which he worked hard to conquer. It had allowed Mary to be found guilty of treason against her Tudor cousin, Elizabeth I. Throughout his reign Charles was obliged to rely primarily on volunteer forces for defence and on diplomatic efforts to support his sister, Elizabeth, and his foreign policy objective for the restoration of the Palatinate. [121], Charles perceived the unrest in Scotland as a rebellion against his authority, precipitating the First Bishops' War in 1639. [60], Charles provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan": a tax levied without parliamentary consent. The Scots were promised £400,000 in instalments. Some of the factors could were under Charles' control, others were unavoidable. [18], Unfortunately for James, negotiation with Spain proved generally unpopular, both with the public and with James's court. When Charles II returned from exile in 1661 public opinion had swung right back behind the monarchy. The Parliamentarians controlled two of Charles’ kids. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Their regicidal conviction was evident from even before the Purge, and their newfound influence in Parliament was used to that effect. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. [118] Although it had been written, under Charles's direction, by Scottish bishops, many Scots resisted it, seeing the new prayer book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland. The Trial and Execution of Charles I, 1648-49 Lecturer: Prof. John Morrill – Cambridge University. [40] Many members of the Commons were opposed to the king's marriage to a Roman Catholic, fearing that Charles would lift restrictions on Catholic recusants and undermine the official establishment of the reformed Church of England. [311] In 1627 and 1628, Charles purchased the entire collection of the Duke of Mantua, which included work by Titian, Correggio, Raphael, Caravaggio, del Sarto and Mantegna. [83], Personal rule necessitated peace. [184] Furthermore, the Remonstrance had very little support in the House of Lords, which the Remonstrance attacked. [326], The official style of Charles I as king in England was "Charles, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. Elizabeth cried hysterically when she realised she should not see her father again, and he hid his own tears to calm her. Many people were heartily sick of the sober restraints of Puritanism.Oliver Cromwell, who died a disillusioned man in 1658, had failed to create a working Parliament and his incompetent son and heir, Richard, was forced to resign. The public began to mobilise around a reaffirmation of the National Covenant, whose signatories pledged to uphold the reformed religion of Scotland and reject any innovations that were not authorised by Kirk and Parliament. [155], Charles assured Strafford that "upon the word of a king you shall not suffer in life, honour or fortune",[156] and the attainder could not succeed if Charles withheld assent. Strafford's administration had improved the Irish economy and boosted tax revenue, but had done so by heavy-handedly imposing order. In private, Charles was gentle and polite, by all accounts a loving father. About this Course; About this Lecturer; About this Course. [11], Eventually, Charles apparently conquered his physical infirmity,[11] which might have been caused by rickets. [148], The Long Parliament proved just as difficult for Charles as had the Short Parliament. To protect Montagu from the stricture of Puritan members of Parliament, Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions that Charles favoured Arminianism as a clandestine attempt to aid the resurgence of Catholicism. He was the second son of James VI of Scotland/James I of England and the youngest of the royal family. In our home section you will find stylish lifestyle home accessories and furnishings, including cushions, tapestries, ornaments and much more which will add those finishing touches to make your room complete. [146] The treaty stated that the Scots would continue to occupy Northumberland and Durham and be paid £850 per day until peace was restored and the English Parliament recalled, which would be required to raise sufficient funds to pay the Scottish forces. [211] The negotiations proved futile, and Charles raised the royal standard in Nottingham on 22 August 1642. [103], Against the background of this unrest, Charles faced bankruptcy in mid-1640. [61] Summoned again in March 1628, on 26 May Parliament adopted a Petition of Right, calling upon the king to acknowledge that he could not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, not impose martial law on civilians, not imprison them without due process, and not quarter troops in their homes. [197] On 3 January 1642, Charles directed Parliament to give up five members of the Commons – Pym, John Hampden, Denzil Holles, William Strode and Sir Arthur Haselrig – and one peer – Lord Mandeville – on the grounds of high treason. [220] The parliamentary army turned back towards London, and Charles set off in pursuit. [104] In August, after the East India Company refused to grant a loan,[105] Lord Cottington seized the company's stock of pepper and spices and sold it for £60,000 (far below its market value), promising to refund the money with interest later. To learn more or change your settings, please see our cookie policy, Updated 12 June. [173] Strafford's impeachment provided a new departure for Irish politics whereby all sides joined together to present evidence against him. [122] Charles did not seek subsidies from the English Parliament to wage war, but instead raised an army without parliamentary aid and marched to Berwick-upon-Tweed, on the border of Scotland. [46] With the support of King James, Montagu produced another pamphlet, entitled Appello Caesarem, in 1625 shortly after the old king's death and Charles's accession. Under Charles II, the surviving 41 republicans who had signed the death warrant were called to account. Most fled abroad, or surrendered voluntarily to avoid execution. Execution of Charles I. January 30, 1649; 2 John Bradshaw. James V and Margaret Douglas were both children of, Christian III and Elizabeth were both children of, General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Speech against the attainder of Strafford, rebuffed by the town's Parliamentary governor, High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I, Charles I Insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers, Cultural depictions of Charles I of England, "Delaroche masterpiece feared lost in war to go on show at National Gallery", The Society of King Charles the Martyr (United States), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_I_of_England&oldid=1000203376, Monarchs imprisoned and detained during war, People executed under the Interregnum (England) for treason against England, People executed under the Interregnum (England) by decapitation, Burials at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Coat of arms as Duke of York from 1611 to 1612, Coat of arms as heir apparent and Prince of Wales used from 1612 to 1625, Coat of arms of Charles I used (outside Scotland) from 1625 to 1649, Coat of arms of Charles I used in Scotland from 1625 to 1649, Charles James, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay. Just before and the execution of … [169], In Ireland, the population was split into three main socio-political groups: the Gaelic Irish, who were Catholic; the Old English, who were descended from medieval Normans and were also predominantly Catholic; and the New English, who were Protestant settlers from England and Scotland aligned with the English Parliament and the Covenanters. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. The King was taken to his bedchamber in Whitehall Palace, to await summons to the scaffold. When armed conflict arose between the Gaelic Irish and New English, in late October 1641, the Old English sided with the Gaelic Irish while simultaneously professing their loyalty to the king. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. The ten who refused to beg forgiveness were tried and sentenced to death. [226] Attempts to negotiate a settlement over the winter, while both sides re-armed and re-organised, were again unsuccessful. His stubborn refusal to compromise over power-sharing finally ignited civil war. From “An Horation Ode” * * * * * That Charles himself might chase: To Carisbrook’s narrow case; That thence the royal actor borne, The tragic scaffold might adorn. 4.8 19 customer reviews. Carnwath's action was misinterpreted by the royalist soldiers as a signal to move back, leading to a collapse of their position. [151] The Act was coupled with a subsidy bill, and so to secure the latter, Charles grudgingly granted royal assent in February 1641. The inscription reads: 'His majesty King Charles I passed through this hall and out of a window nearly over this tablet to the scaffold in Whitehall where he was beheaded on 30th January 1649'. Image: King Charles II, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2017. A mere handful, possibly not more than a few hundred people, were really determined to put the King to death. It is not their having a share in the government; that is nothing appertaining unto them. [10] Even so, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller[b] elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. [98][f] One such monopoly was for soap, pejoratively referred to as "popish soap" because some of its backers were Catholics. He was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603 (as James I), he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. [115], When Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties. Erected against the Banqueting House in Whitehall, the scaffold was hung round with black cloth. All dates in this article are given in the. The incident set an important precedent as the process of impeachment would later be used against Charles and his supporters: the Duke of Buckingham, Archbishop William Laud, and the Earl of Strafford. [44] In his pamphlet A New Gag for an Old Goose (1624), a reply to the Catholic pamphlet A New Gag for the New Gospel, Montagu argued against Calvinist predestination, the doctrine that salvation and damnation were preordained by God. In a nutshell, King Charles I believed that he held the Divine Right of Kings and that he should have absolute rule. [190] [297] The king's son, Charles II, later planned for an elaborate royal mausoleum to be erected in Hyde Park, London, but it was never built. They recommended making peace. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. Facts about Charles 1st … [168] However, following an attempted royalist coup in Scotland, known as "The Incident", Charles's credibility was significantly undermined. In direct contrast to his previous conflict with the Scottish Kirk, on 26 December 1647 he signed a secret treaty with the Scots. Watch this momentous event brought to life in this special documentary. Now law, history and fact were being twisted again to argue that a king could … [5] In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. [219] After Rupert captured Bristol in July 1643, Charles visited the port city and laid siege to Gloucester, further up the river Severn. Charles refused to see anyone but his children and his chaplain, Bishop Juxon. [57], Meanwhile, domestic quarrels between Charles and Henrietta Maria were souring the early years of their marriage. [73], In January 1629, Charles opened the second session of the English Parliament, which had been prorogued in June 1628, with a moderate speech on the tonnage and poundage issue. According to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, he "threw himself upon his bed, lamenting with much passion and with abundance of tears". Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom. Previously, collection of ship money had been authorised only during wars, and only on coastal regions. The conflict, originally confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public quickly grew to see as a polarised continental struggle between Catholics and Protestants. [254] In January 1649, the Rump House of Commons indicted him on a charge of treason, which was rejected by the House of Lords. "[202] Charles abjectly declared "all my birds have flown", and was forced to retire, empty-handed. Following the outbreak of war in August 1642, with Charles I raising his standard in Nottingham, England was catapaulted into a civil war that split the country down the middle. [208] After sending his wife and eldest daughter to safety abroad in February, he travelled northwards, hoping to seize the military arsenal at Hull. [217] He overwintered in Oxford, strengthening the city's defences and preparing for the next season's campaign. [85] Ruling without Parliament was not exceptional, and was supported by precedent. [69] It did, however, coincide with an improvement in Charles's relationship with his wife, and by November 1628 their old quarrels were at an end. For example, James I ruled without Parliament between 1614 and 1621. [231] He put himself into the hands of the Scottish presbyterian army besieging Newark, and was taken northwards to Newcastle upon Tyne. Two of his children remained in England under the control of the Parliamentarians: Elizabeth and Henry. The power had swung to the army, which was most effectively vested in Henry Ireton and Oliver Cromwell. [14], In 1613, Charles's sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, and moved to Heidelberg. He set up his court at Oxford. "[56] Despite Parliament's protests, however, Charles refused to dismiss his friend, dismissing Parliament instead. Facts about Charles 1st Execution 5: the children of Charles I. [304] Upon his death in 1658, he was briefly succeeded by his ineffective son, Richard. [225] Returning northwards to his base at Oxford, he fought at Newbury for a second time before the winter closed in; the battle ended indecisively. When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment on 2 March,[79] members held the Speaker, Sir John Finch, down in his chair so that the ending of the session could be delayed long enough for resolutions against Catholicism, Arminianism and tonnage and poundage to be read out and acclaimed by the chamber. Two-year-old Charles spent his first English Christmas at Hampton Court Palace. [255] The idea of trying a king was a novel one. [272] Fifty-nine of the commissioners signed Charles's death warrant. Lenthall, on his knees,[201] famously replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here. [263] The charge stated that he, "for accomplishment of such his designs, and for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices, to the same ends hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament, and the people therein represented", and that the "wicked designs, wars, and evil practices of him, the said Charles Stuart, have been, and are carried on for the advancement and upholding of a personal interest of will, power, and pretended prerogative to himself and his family, against the public interest, common right, liberty, justice, and peace of the people of this nation. "[322] Charles was more sober and refined than his father,[323] but he was intransigent. Charles was not born to be king. [277] Charles was separated from spectators by large ranks of soldiers, and his last speech reached only those with him on the scaffold. Charles Ogilvie writes how Charles's continued misjudgments revealed that, if the world were to be made safe for the “Godly,” the King must be executed. [186] Throughout November, a series of alarmist pamphlets published stories of atrocities in Ireland,[187] which included massacres of New English settlers by the native Irish who could not be controlled by the Old English lords. For comparison, a typical farm labourer could earn 8d a day, or about £10 a year. [295] This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek for the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and it proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda. [8] Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Some families had bitterly divided loyalties, brother fighting brother, but religion cut deeper, with Catholics tending to support the King. [113] The courts became feared for their censorship of opposing religious views and unpopular among the propertied classes for inflicting degrading punishments on gentlemen. After the trial he was taken by sedan chair a short distance to his old room at Whitehall Palace. Thursday 30 January is the 371st anniversary of Charles I's execution, at the Banqueting House on Whitehall. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Churches, such as those at Falmouth and Tunbridge Wells, and Anglican devotional societies such as the Society of King Charles the Martyr, were founded in his honour. [324] Both Charles and James were advocates of the divine right of kings, but while James's ambitions concerning absolute prerogative were tempered by compromise and consensus with his subjects, Charles believed that he had no need to compromise or even to explain his actions. His trial and execution were the first of their kind. [112] Laud prosecuted those who opposed his reforms in the Court of High Commission and the Star Chamber, the two most powerful courts in the land. [137] Although originally a critic of the king, Strafford defected to royal service in 1628 (due in part to Buckingham's persuasion),[138] and had since emerged, alongside Laud, as the most influential of Charles's ministers. [261], Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of the country. The following morning, Tuesday 30 January, the King rose early and dressed for the icy weather, asking for a thicker than normal shirt, so that he wouldn’t shiver, and people wouldn't think he was quaking with fear. [114] For example, in 1637 William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were pilloried, whipped and mutilated by cropping and imprisoned indefinitely for publishing anti-episcopal pamphlets. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. [32], With the encouragement of his Protestant advisers, James summoned the English Parliament in 1624 so that he could request subsidies for a war. Subject: History. [109], In 1633, Charles appointed William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury. [330], As Duke of York, Charles bore the royal arms of the kingdom differenced by a label Argent of three points, each bearing three torteaux Gules. 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